Our encyclopedia is designed to help students and researchers identify evidence-based leader behaviors from the top scholarly journals. The behaviors can be used to help reach goals in the Sanger Leadership Journey. Please note, we are constantly adding new research articles and looking into new features. If you have comments or suggestions, reach out to us.

To search for a specific behavior, use the filters below to select. You do not need to select a filter for each category. You can view more information about the Michigan Model quadrants here, including a self-assessment you can take.

Do you have a journal article and behavior to submit? Use our form and we will review and add it.





Collaborative Community (Yellow)

Leading Teams | Civility, Strategic Communication

Behavior:

High levels of power distance between leaders and followers can result in reduced organizational citizenship behaviors. How can you break down this barrier between you and your team members?

Citation:
Anand, S., Vidyarthi, P., & Rolnicki, S. (2018). Leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behaviors: Contextual effects of leader power distance and group task interdependence. The Leadership quarterly, 29(4), 489Ð500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.11.002

Strategic Structures (Red)

Self-Leadership | Authenticity

Behavior:

Be uniquely you! When leaders act in line with their values and beliefs, they are more likely to achieve elevated levels of performance and help others accomplish the same.

Citation:
Banks, G. C, McCauley, K/ D., Gardner, W. L., & Guler, C. E. (2016). A meta-analytic review of authentic and transformational leadership: A test for redundancy. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(4), 634Ð652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2016.02.006

Collaborative Community (Yellow)

Self-Leadership | Preparedness, Proactivity, Resilience

Behavior:

A well-rested leader is better able to regulate their behaviors during the day and engage more constructively with others. Making more time for more sleep can pay off in a big way.

Citation:
Barnes, C. M., Lucianetti, L., Bhave, D. P., & Christian, M. S. (2015). ÒYou wouldn't like me when IÕm sleepyÓ: LeadersÕ sleep, daily abusive supervision, and work unit engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 58(5), 1419-1437. https://journals.aom.org/doi/abs/10.5465/amj.2013.1063

Creative Change (Green)

Leading Teams | Designing Team Structures, Empowerment, Team Building

Behavior:

Letting team members write their own role descriptions boosts worker productivity and morale. Try a job crafting session at the start of your next project with your team, where you ask each person to design their dream role on that specific team.

Citation:
Berg, J. M., Dutton, J. E., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2013). Job crafting and meaningful work. In B. J. Dik, Z. S. Byrne, & M. F. Steger (Eds.), Purpose and meaning in the workplace (p. 81Ð104). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14183-005

Collaborative Community (Yellow)

Leading Teams | Building Connection, Strategic Communication, Trust

Behavior:

As a leader, you can’t treat everyone the same. But all of your followers should receive support, encouragement, and trust from you. When they do, as a team, they will have a higher belief in their team’s abilities and lower team conflict.

Citation:
Boies, K., & Howell, J. M. (2006). LeaderÐmember exchange in teams: An examination of the interaction between relationship differentiation and mean LMX in explaining team-level outcomes. The Leadership quarterly, 17(3), 246Ð257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.004

Creative Change (Green)

Interpersonal Skills | Innovation, Strategic Communication

Behavior:

As a leader, you need to change your messaging to fit your goals. To increase innovation, use intellectual stimulation, to increase task performance, use inspirational motivation. Take some time to think about your goals, and then decide which messaging you want to use.

Citation:
Boies, K., Fiset, J,, & Gill, H. (2015). Communication and trust are key: Unlocking the relationship between leadership and team performance and creativity. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(6), 1080Ð1094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.07.007

Strategic Structures (Red)

Leading Teams | Empowerment, Proactivity

Behavior:

As a leader, you need to know when to intervene or not. Leader intervention during a disruptive event prevents negative effects on team functioning. But over-intervention makes your team depend upon you too much. Take a chance this week, and empower your team without stepping in to take the lead.

Citation:
Morgeson, F. P., & DeRue, D. Scott. (2006). Event criticality, urgency, and duration: Understanding how events disrupt teams and influence team leader intervention. The Leadership quarterly, 17(3), 271Ð287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.006

Collaborative Community (Yellow)

Interpersonal Skills | Learning, Problem Solving, Strategic Communication

Behavior:

Listen to understand, not just reply. It might seem to be the least emphasized communication skill, but it was found to be the most impactful.

Citation:
Brink, K. E., & Costigan, R. D. (2015). Oral Communication Skills: Are the Priorities of the Workplace and AACSB-Accredited Business Programs Aligned? Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), 205-221. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2013.0044

Strategic Structures (Red)

Leading Teams | Learning, Strategic Communication, Teaching

Behavior:

You can help your team members self-efficacy and skills grow by emphasizing more social interaction and reflection while learning.

Citation:
Cajiao, J., & Burke, M. J. (2016). How Instructional Methods Influence Skill Development in Management Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 15(3), 508-524. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2013.0354

Robust Results (Blue)

Leading Teams | Vision Crafting

Behavior:

When communicating a vision to others, use concrete language where there is a good chance each person will imagine the same vision to go with your words.

Citation:
Carton, A. M., Murphy, C., & Clark, J. R. (2014). A (blurry) vision of the future: How leader rhetoric about ultimate goals influences performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), 1544-1570. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2012.0101