Evidence-Based Leader Behavior Encyclopedia

Our encyclopedia is designed to help students and researchers identify evidence-based leader behaviors from the top scholarly journals. The behaviors can be used to help reach goals in the Sanger Leadership Journey. Please note, we are constantly adding new research articles and looking into new features. If you have comments or suggestions, reach out to us.

To search for a specific behavior, use the filters below to select. You do not need to select a filter for each category. You can view more information about the Michigan Model quadrants here, including a self-assessment you can take.

Do you have a journal article and behavior to submit? Use our form and we will review and add it.

Collaborate

Team | Team inclusion

Behavior:

Take a moment to reflect on your friend group. Research shows that the presence of diversity is not enough to foster meaningful intergroup interactions because cross-race and cross-class interactions in college occur less often than expected. However, interactions across racial and social class predicted better academic performance for students.

Citation:
Carey, R. M., Stephens, N. M., Townsend, S. S., & Hamedani, M. G. (2022). Is diversity enough? Cross-race and cross-class interactions in college occur less often than expected, but benefit members of lower status groups when they occur. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Drive Results

Organization | Org Competitiveness

Behavior:

The findings indicate that lawyers often adopt uncooperative strategies in court to visibly distance themselves from opposing counsel who were once collaborators, highlighting a critical mechanism by which past collaborations can undermine rather than support future cooperative endeavors.

Citation:
Uribe, J., Sytch, M., & Kim, Y. H. (2020). When Friends Become Foes: Collaboration as a Catalyst for Conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 65(3), 751–794. https://www.jstor.org/stable/48589137

Drive Results

Individual | Influence

Behavior:

To lead or to be liked? Michigan Ross Professor Charleen Case and colleagues uncovered that leaders who are worried about prestige and how others perceive them often make bad decisions at the expense of the group. Experiment with divorcing your own feelings and ego from decisions and making the best decision for your team.

Citation:
Case, C. R., Bae, K. K., & Maner, J. K. (2018). To lead or to be liked: When prestige-oriented leaders prioritize popularity over performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(4), 657–676.

Collaborate

Team | Team inclusion

Behavior:

Teams that focus too much on what they have in common can miss out on the value of diversity. Make sure you help your team gain value from diversity by taking the time to regularly discuss individual member areas of expertise and strength.

Citation:
Chatman, J. A., Greer, L. L., Sherman, E., & Doerr, B. (2019). Blurred lines: How the collectivism norm operates through perceived group diversity to boost or harm group performance in Himalayan mountain climbing. Organization Science, 30(2), 235-259.

Collaborate

Organization | Org culture

Behavior:

Want to increase workplace safety? Research shows that task-oriented leadership followed by relational-oriented leadership are the most important contributors to workplace safety.

Citation:
Lyubykh, Z., Turner, N., Hershcovis, M. S., & Deng, C. (2022). A meta-analysis of leadership and workplace safety: Examining relative importance, contextual contingencies, and methodological moderators. Journal of Applied Psychology, 107(12), 2149–2175. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000557